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The basic raw material for the membrane Chlor-Alkali process is purified Sodium Chloride. The quality of salt plays an important role in the proper trouble-free production of Chlorine and Caustic Soda (Sodium Hydroxide). The introduction of membrane technology into the Chlor-Alkali Electrolysis has increased the demand for quality salt. The quality of the salt used as raw material determines the life of the membrane cells. On the other hand, the consumption of electricity is dependent on the level of impurities in the salt.
Hub-Pak specializes in the production of chemically pure salt for this application and offers a little better than what is needed to save cost in running, as well as in capital by the Chlor-Alkali industries. There are four different grades being offered to this sector. A special grade amongst these is absolutely trace-free from Ca, Mg, S04-2Sr, Ba, Al, Fe and TOC.
Double Fortified salt is available in two grades at Hub-Pak. This idea of double fortification was conceived by those researchers who have been researching on this activity for well over 20 years. We have developed the process and offer two grades in double fortified salt, one being Salt Fortification with IRON and IODINE, mostly used for populations with acute iron deficiencies.
The second type of Double Fortified Salt we produce is with Fluoride and Iodine. It is produced at our facility with utmost care to keep levels of Iodine as well as Fluoride in a controlled and balanced form that conforms to food grade salt standards required to be met in certain countries where governments imply double fortified salts to be used as consumable to counter deficiencies of these minerals in their general population. We have mastered this technique of double fortification and have been exporting these products for almost a decade.
Double Fortified Food Salt
The Dye Manufacturing Grade of salt is not only used to improve the colour of the dye on different fabrics but is also an important ingredient in the making of the dyes. Since Hub-Pak is the most credible source of salt, we provide to most dye manufacturers in Pakistan. There are 5 grades of salt that Hub-Pak offers to dye manufacturers. Other than the dye manufacturers, we also supply to pharmaceutical and food dye manufacturers. We cater to all the specific requirements these dye manufacturers have since the dye they produce is very sensitive to impurities.
The Extra-Pure AR Grade of salt is produced with the maximum level of purity. It is produced at a purity level that exceeds the international requirements of all pharmacopoeias globally. The AR grade is available in one kg, laboratory friendly bottles only and is usually used at laboratory scale for reactive testing purposes, amongst other uses.
NaCl m.wt = 58.44 g/mol
- Assay 99.5 to100.5%
- Ph (5% w/v solution)5 – 7.5
- Bromide (Br) 0.004%
- Ferro cyanide [Fe(Cn) 6] nil
- Iodide (I) 0.001%
- Phosphate (PO4) 0.002%
- Sulphate (SO4) 0.004%
- Heavy metals (Pb) 0.0005%
- Ammonium (NH4) 0.002%
- Arsenic (As) 0.0001%
- Barium (Ba) 0.0005%
- Calcium (Ca) 0.001%
- Magnesium (Mg) 0.001%
- Iron (Fe) 0.0002%
- Potassium (K) 0.01%
- Loss on drying (130°C)0.4%v
Extra-Pure AR Grade (Analytical-Reagent)
Leather is developed using animal skin and hides. These skins and hides are chemically treated to preserve quality and texture. This process is known as tanning. After going through this process, the leather becomes strong, flexible and is able to resist decay. Different animal skins and hides are used to make leather which includes horses, cattle, goats, cows, calves, lambs, deer, kangaroos, reptiles, seals and walruses.
Each animal’s skin has different characteristics and so the tanning process for each animal’s skin is different. The process also changes with the requirements of the customers of the end product. After the hide or the skin is stripped from the animals, it is salted and dried. This process is called “curing”. There are two ways to cure: wet-salting and brine-curing. Out of the two wet-salting is more common, since it’s faster and easier.
During the process of brine-curing, the skins or hides are positioned carefully in vats where they are smothered with a mixture of disinfectant and salt.
Flossy salt, also known as hide salt, has some chemicals added in it which act as pesticides on the skins and hides.
Hub-Pak does not enjoy a good market for Flossy salt since hides and skins can also be salted with low-quality salt. There are some quality conscious customers in the market as well who purchase Flossy salt from Hub-Pak to retain the quality of the leather being tanned. Bacterial growth in the skins and hides can be injurious to the workers at tanning factories, so 1% of Boric Acid and Sodium Fluoride is used as a precaution to prevent bacterial growth. The salt used in this industry isn’t that harmful but the chemicals added can have an adverse effect on the quality of the leather.
Typical, Sieve Analysis or Mesh Size Distribution (MSD) used in this grade is between 2 mm and 0.5mm
The major part of the consumption of Hub-Pak’s Oil Drilling Grade Salt is in the export markets due to its premium quality. Exported to numerous countries, the company offers different grades starting from PVD to lower grade salts of 97% purity.
The drilling companies put a lot of emphasis on quality and timely shipment and these attributes become a priority for us. This emphasis on quality and timely shipment also keeps us on our toes, continuously working on improving the quality.
Oil Drilling Grade Salt
The Oil Refinery Grade is mainly produced for and supplied to the petrochemical and the oil refinery industry. The quality of the salt along with the size and size distribution of the salt is important since they are used in the production of oil and other fuels.
Oil Refinery Grade Salt is a premium product and has to be of high quality that conforms to buyer’s specifications. In oil refineries, the hydro-desulfurization units for Jet and Diesel fuel need coalescer and salt dryer when stripper column is designed with direct stripping steam.
The salt dryer completely avoids product that’s off-specification in water content and appearance.
The size and the size distribution of the particles hold great importance in these industries. Small particles will cause corrosion on the downstream system due to salt carry-over and big particles will inactivate surface area.
Hub-Pak has numerous competitive advantages when it comes to the grade of rock salt like the size management, screening, drying and packaging.
Furthermore, our advanced and sophisticated plant makes all possible efforts to directly ship to our customers, as soon as possible. This practice avoids contamination, moisture building during transportation and thus also minimizes the damage caused to crystals while over handling.
Oil Refinery Grade
Hub-Pak offers different grades of industrial salt to pharmaceutical industries ranging from Pyrogen-free salt to a lower grade of 99.95% minimum of NaCl. It also supplies another special grade of salt which is the Bromine-free grade.
The Pyrogen-free salt exceeds the BP, EP, USP etc. standards. Another special grade supplied to the pharmaceutical industry is the Bromine-free grade. This grade is also being exported to different countries. In total there are about 7 different grades manufactured for the pharmaceutical industry.
The salt tablets produced at Hub-Pak are used for both domestic and industrial uses. There are two types of salt tablets, an economical grade of tablets is made using Refined Salt and the second grade which is superior in quality is produced using salt from the Vacuum salt (PVD) plant.
The PVD salt tablets are also produced in two different qualities, the pharmaceutical grade and the food grade. Hub-Pak guarantees that each salt tablet produced by them is purely made of salt and can be compared to any grain of salt. The importance is put on the strength, smoothness and firmness in compaction during the production of these salt tablets. PVD tablets dissolve 100% when put in water so that the uneven or un-dissolved salt does not create any problems by building up in the base of the softener.
Salt Tablets For Water Softeners
Salt is an essential ingredient in the manufacturing process of Soap, Detergent and Glycerin.
Hub-Pak offers 5 different grades of salt ideal to fulfil the requirements of the soap, detergent and glycerin manufacturers.
The manufacturing process of soap, detergent and glycerin involves the use of salt. During this process, the soap is washed with concentrated brine solution (NaCl) to separate glycerin. This is done after the saponification reaction.
The solubility of soap in water increases with an increase in the size of monovalent cations. Similarly, an increase in divalent cations (Ca & Mg) results in a decrease in the solubility. The increase in the water solubility leads to the softness and mushiness of the soap. The divalent ions, Ca & Mg, cause problems during the manufacturing process of the soap by making it mushy and soft.
There are different grades of salt that fulfil the requirements of the manufacturers of soap, detergent and glycerin manufacturers. In total, there are 5 different grades offered by Hub-Pak to these manufacturers.
Soap, Detergent And Glycerin
Hub-Pak enjoys a prominent position in producing the special grade Ultra-Pure Bromine-Free salt. For this purpose, the R&D department of the company has designed an indigenous electrode ionization plant to extract impurities providing the customer with the purest of salt. This plant is used to extract Bromine and has been working smoothly and problem-free since the beginning. The plant has been designed for high inputs of Bromine, since raw Brines have a lot of variations.
The production of Special Ultra-Pure Bromine-Free Grade of salt has only become possible in Pakistan due to the hectic, dedicated and ambitious efforts of our R&D department. It has taken us more than three years to make this special grade completely Bromine-free. The Bromine content in our regular Pyrogen-free grades is in the range of 10 to 40 ppm.
With the passage of time, we have learnt more and more about the system. This has made it possible for us to extract impurities, other than Bromine, as well. Currently, these impurities are going to waste. The R&D department is researching how we can minimize this waste and convert these impurities into useful and valuable products.
Special Ultra-Pure Bromine Free Grade Salt
Keeping in mind that Pakistan enjoys a prominent position in cotton production, Hub-Pak provides its customers with the high quality, credible dyeing salt with the main emphasis on maintaining the low hardness in salt and restoring the fabric colour.
Hub-Pak has specialized in the field of textile since Pakistan is a prime producer of cotton. We have been serving the textile sector for over 15 years now. We make sure that the textile sector is well taken care of by always bringing innovative grades in salt.
During the process of dyeing, the salt is used in the exhaustion of the dye into the fabric. Salt plays an important role there since it acts as the ionic force that transfers the dye onto the fabric. Poor quality salt gives uneven colour exhaustion which looks bad on the fabric. The hardness the salt is causing with its addition into the dye-bath is given much importance. Therefore, the main emphasis is on maintaining the low hardness in salt. The grades of dyeing salt start from a hardness of 180 ppm (50 g/l) and goes right down to zero hardness (any g/l) and in between there are 7 other different qualities.
The hardness alone is not the only factor that impacts the dyeing. The impurities also affect the quality of the dyed fabric or yarn. Since we have expertise in this region, we enjoy a handsome domestic market share as well as decades-old export customer that have the guarantee of our high quality, credible dyeing salt that will not create problems while using it for dyeing purposes.
Textile Dyeing Grade Salt
The main purpose of the Water Softening Grade of salt, as the name suggests, is to soften the water. The salt contains ion-exchange resins that help soften the water and make it useable in different machines in different industries.
This grade of salt is used to soften the water before it is used in boilers and various other industrial, residential and commercial applications. Water softeners are filled with ion-exchange resins that soften the water. With time, the resins exhaust and need to be re-generated using salt brines. The quality of the salt plays an important part here as well since low-quality salt can spoil the plant and the resins. The water softening technicians know that poor quality of salt can even plug the valves and pipes other than making the resins being worn out before its stipulated time. It has also been observed that salt with very high residues of Sulphates have proven to be detrimental for the equipment.
Since quality is given importance at Hub-Pak, the 5 different grades of water softening salt are guaranteed to work for this application. The salt ensures that Sulphate remains low and the resins have a longer life and do not exhaust quickly.
Water Softening Grade Salt